为何精益是组织数字转型的引擎?

改善家Alice发表于:2019年09月15日 19:11:59

今天要分享给大家的一篇来自法国一位资深精益IT教练,Régis Médina的经典文章:Why lean is the engine of a digital transformation? 为何精益是组织数字转型的引擎?作者Régis Médina在法国最大的运营管理顾问公司OPERAE PARTNERS担任资深精益IT教练近10年,师从世界级精益大师,帮助过许多大型公司优化运营流程。OPERAE PARTNERS是一家拥有110年历史的法国资深运营管理优化公司,其服务过的行业包括:电信、银行保险、公共服务、信息服务、软件供应商、零售以及制药等领域。


The goal of your digital transformation is not only to develop new technologies and innovative processes, but to turn your people into the kind of "smart creatives" who will lead your firm into the future. Lean will get you there.

你的数字转型并不只是发展新的技术和创新流程,而是应当把你的人变成”智能生物“来引领你的公司走向未来。精益将把你带去那里。


For the past few months, I have been lucky enough to work on both sides of the digital landscape: on the one hand, I worked with leaders of very large IT organizations trying to find a way to better serve their customers; on the other, with small companies run by young digital experts.

过去的几个月,我有幸接触到数字组织的全貌。一方面,我和非常大型的信息技术组织来找到一个更好的方式来服务他们的客户;另一方面,和来自小公司的年轻数字专家来一起合作。


These two experiences showed me a number of features of a digital transformation that, in my opinion, have been overlooked in the current debate. Specifically, I am now convinced that lean thinking can give a significant contribution to companies that are trying to carve out a place in the digital world.

But let's go one step at a time and start with the problem to be solved.

这两段经历让我意识到数字转型的一系列特征,在我看来,这些特征在当今的讨论中被忽略了。具体来说,我现在非常确信精益思想确实能够帮到那些想要在数字世界中闯出一番天地的公司。

不过,让我们先看看是从那个问题开始着手。


WHAT DOES "DIGITAL" MEAN TO YOUR COMPANY?

“数字化”对于你的公司来说意味着什么?


In just a few years, IT has completely invaded our every-day lives. Companies have had to find clever ways to adapt and have started to use new technologies to offer an ever greater customer experience. Think of Uber, for example: these days it takes 20 seconds to order a cab, which will normally come in less than five minutes. A decade ago this was unimaginable.

就在近几年,IT已经完全入侵到我们每一天的生活中。对于企业或者公司来说,不得不找到聪明的方法来适应甚至开始用新技术来给客户提供更好的体验。比如说Uber, 举个例子,现在,我们只需要花20秒就能叫到一辆出租车,一般来说5分钟之内它肯定会来。而20年前,这是无法想象的。


At the same time, technology is radically changing the way customers interact with companies. First of all, customers are now in complete control – they decide what they want, where and when they want, how they want it delivered – and it is no longer up to organizations to "push" products and services out. It's the customers that pull the product and service they need, when they need it.

同时,技术彻底地改变了顾客和公司的互动方式。首先,顾客现掌握了控制权-他们决定他们想要什么,在哪里要,何时要以及怎么要。所以这个已经不是由公司来决定把产品和服务往外“推”了。而是顾客拉动了他们想要地产品和服务以及他们何时要。


Secondly, customer expectations are higher and higher. The service a company provides must be simple, cost-effective, instantaneous, transparent and perfectly tailored to their specific needs. And you cannot ignore these requirements, because if you do, they will use social media to voice their complaints.

其次,顾客期望越来越高。公司所提供的服务必须是简单的,有实效的,同时的,透明的并且能完美根据需求定制的。你不能忽略这些要求,因为一旦你这么做,他们将用社交媒体来发声抱怨。


The main consequence of this momentous shift is that IT now has a new role: it is no longer a back-office support function, but a major channel of communication through which customers interact with your service.

这个巨大转变导致的结果是IT现在是个新的角色:它不再是后台的支持功能,而是顾客和公司服务互动的一种主要交流方式。


Organizations need to better integrate the IT function and the rest of their processes, in order to become more competitive in the digital world, and they need to learn how to do it quickly because new competitors are always on their way – hundreds of innovative digital startups are born every day.

组织需要更好的把IT以及其他过程整合在一起,从而能够在数字世界中更具有竞争力。并且,他们需要学会如何快速达成,因为新的竞争对手永远在路上,现在每天都有上百家创新数字新秀公司产生。

THE COMMON REACTION

通常做法

There is a common pattern that companies tend to follow as they attempt to adapt to the new, digital world: they build a brand new App and put it up for sale on the App Store, most of the time only to see it trashed by users shortly after.

如今公司为了适应拥抱数字世界,会遵循一个固有模式:开发新的App,然后在App商店上架,然后通常情况下,很快就看到被顾客废弃了。


The poor performance of their App normally convinces the organizations that their processes also need to change, which normally results in the adoption of agile methodologies and in the use of modern technologies, such as big data or cloud computing.

App差劲的表现通常会让组织觉得流程需要改变,然后考虑接受使用敏捷的方法或者用更加现代的技术,比如大数字和云技术算。


The newly introduced processes and technologies, however, rarely live up to expectations. After an initial period of excitement, product innovation and company processes don't get any faster, quality problems continue to plague the service provided, and a few months later people are already wondering what the next solution might be.

然而,最新引进的流程和技术通常难以尽如人意。在最初的兴奋之后,产品创新以及公司流程都没有变得更快,质量问题会给服务带来麻烦,几个月后,人们就将开始考虑下一个解决方案会是什么。


The reason for this is that these companies are trying to embrace a new way of thinking and survive in the digital world using the same old approach (that made them obsolete in the first place, one might add). We are not delivering as expected? Just change the tools we use and the processes we run!

However, this is not how modern digital companies think.

这些公司之所以期望拥抱数字世界而失败的原因是他们还在用旧的方法(这些旧的方法让他们在第一时间就被废弃了。)我们所交付的没有像预期的那样?那让我们来改变我们使用的工具和我们运行的流程。

然而,现代数字化的公司并不是这么想的。


THE ANSWER? YOUR PEOPLE

那答案在哪里?你的人!


Let's take Google as an example.

The founders say that, when they started, they rejected the traditional approach to management and decided to start from two basic principles instead:

• Focus on the user – If you have millions of satisfied users, everything else will come naturally.

• Hire smart people and give them freedom – freedom to experiment, to look for solutions, to satisfy customers, etc.

让我们看看谷歌,

创始人说,当他们开始创业时,他们就拒绝了用传统的方式来管理,而是决定用以下两项基本原则:

• 关注用户——如果你有上百万满意的用户,其他所有事情都将自然会发生。

• 雇佣聪明的人,并且给他们自由——用来实验和犯错的自由,让他们寻找到让客户满意的解决方案。


And it's now clear that what many companies are missing today is that critical second: people.

Google give us a great description of the type of professional they define as "smart creative": someone who prefers getting her hands dirty than spending hours upon hours in a conference room; someone who loves users and technologies; someone who is able to make things happen but who is also analytical and understands the business side of things.

现在显然,很多公司如今所缺失的第二项重要的东西就是:人才。谷歌给到我们很多关于他们所定义的“智能生物”的描述:他们是那些宁愿把自己双手弄脏而不是在会议室里虚度时光的人;他们是有足够的能力让事情发生,并也是非常有分析能力并且能够真正理解业务的人。


The single most important ingredient in the digital transformation is to have this kind of people by your side, but be warned... they are not easy to find. And there is more. Suppose you find a few... how long do you think they will stay if you force your tools and processes onto them?

This is why it is important to start with what you have: the key is to try to turn everyone in your organization into a "smart creative." And this is exactly what lean thinking can help with.

数字转型中单一最重要的因素就是有这样的人在公司,不过,在这里提醒一点是...他们并不容易找。另外,即使你找到了一些...你认为如果你强迫他们用你的工具和流程的话,他们会在公司待多久?这就是这就是为什么从你拥有的开始做是非常重要的。关键在于把你的组织变成“智能生物”。这其实也就是精益思想能够帮到大家的。


WHY LEAN IS THE ANSWER

为何精益是答案

Lean teaches us that we must develop our people before we develop our products.

The first step in that direction is to let go of the old model of a manager giving his team the solution (tools and processes) and expecting compliance.

Indeed, lean provides a new approach to management that aims to develop and nurture creativity and is based on a set of specific actions:

精益告诉我们必须在我们开发自身产品之前先发展人才,即造物先育人。

要做到这个的第一步就是让就是改变旧有经理人给到团队解决方案(工具和流程)的这种模式,并不要期待团队的服从。


• Communicate your vision to your people – What do you want for users? How do you create value for them? What will make your users smile?

• 和你的团队沟通你的愿景—你想要用户做什么?你们打算如何为他们创造价值?什么能够让你的用户微笑?


• Define clear goals – This can mean many things, from improving customer satisfaction to decreasing lead-time to reducing the number of defects or the volume of support tickets sent to the help desk.

• 定义清晰的目标—这个可以是很多事,从提升客户满意,降低周期到减少次品等。


• Let problems show – Ensure customer problems are tracked and analyzed, and select problems to be solved one by one. You don't need fancy tools; you just need to listen to your customers.

• 让问题暴露—确保顾客的问题都被跟踪和分析,并选择问题来一对一解决。你不需要很炫的工具,你只要听你的顾客。


• Give individuals the power and ability to solve problems – Coach your people, teach them how to use the Plan-Do-Check-Act approach to solve problems the right way. The objective is to make individuals own a problem, engaging both their brains and hearts into solving it. Meet with your users and create a relationship with them, understand their problem, gather facts, dig into technical root causes, and continuously improve your service.

• 给予每个个体一定权利和能力来解决问题—团队带教,教授他们如何使用PDCA的方式来正确地解决问题。这么做的目的是让每个个人拥有问题,让他们带着头脑和心智来解决。和用户见面,和他们建立关系,理解他们的问题,收集事实,深挖技术上的根本原因,持续性地改善服务。


We see it in every lean transformation: this is the only approach that can turn people into smart creatives and develop a culture of continuous, incremental improvement. And what do digital companies rely on if not people who are constantly looking for solutions to customer problems?

我们在每一个精益转变中都看到:这是唯一一个能够把人变成智人,并发展出可持续渐进的改善文化的途径。如果人们不为顾客问题来持续性寻找解决方案,那数字公司将要依靠什么?


A GEMBA EXAMPLE

一个来自现场的例子

The CIO of a very large organization decided to make lean one of the pillar of the company's digital transformation. He was obsessed with customer satisfaction and asked his employees to try to understand every problem the users encountered and flagged up.

一个大型组织的CIO决定把精益作为公司数字转型的一项重要支柱。他沉浸在研究客户满意度的问题中,要求他的雇员来理解用户遇到的每一个问题,并让大家一起重视。


Among his (internal) customers there were a number of employees from one of the company's branches, complaining about a number of IT-related problems. A branch manager, for example, was reporting that every week he received an email stating that many of the PDF files sent by his branch to the archives were incorrect. He therefore had to leave his office, go downstairs, look for each of the files and compare them with the paper versions, just to make sure that everything was in fact correct. It was a colossal waste of time, he complained.

在他的(内部)客户中,有一部分员工来自该公司的一个分支机构,抱怨许多与IT有关的问题。例如,一个分行经理报告说,他每周收到一封电子邮件,说明他的分支机构发的档案的许多PDF文件都是不正确的。因此,他不得不离开办公室,下楼寻找每一份文件,并将它们与纸质版本进行比较,以确保事实上一切都是正确的。他抱怨说,这是极大的浪费时间。


As per the CIO's request, the IT manager in charge of the archiving system took on the problem in a lean way. He started by getting out of the building to go to meet the user. He tried to understand his position, but also what kind of impact on the business that problem could have.

根据CIO的要求,负责归档系统的IT经理以一种精益的方式解决了这个问题。他开始走出大楼去见用户。他试图了解自己的立场,也对问题有什么样的影响。


Looking into the technical reasons why the problem was occurring, he discovered that many of the files were rejected because the scanner was producing a low-quality image. He dug deeper and realized that this was due to a maintenance failure on the large printer used in the office. Digging even deeper, he understood that this was because the maintenance contract for that printer did not include the scanner.

Following his root cause analysis, the IT manager got the problem fixed and then tried to find out who could benefit from this improvement elsewhere in the company. The branch manager said it was the first time in 20 years that an IT person solved something for him, which of course made the IT manager very happy.

研究这个问题发生的技术原因,他发现许多文件被拒绝了,因为扫描仪生产出一个低质量的图像。他挖得更深,意识到这是由于办公室使用的大型打印机维修故障造成的。更深入地挖掘,他明白这是因为打印机的维修合同不包括扫描仪。根据他的根本原因分析,IT经理解决了问题,然后试图找出谁能从公司其他地方的改进中获益。分公司经理说这是20年来IT人员第一次为他解决问题,这当然使IT经理很高兴。


What's important here is not so much the fact that the scanning problem was solved, but that the IT professional adopted a completely different approach to dealing with a problem: he had become more "user smart," wanted to understand the impact of the problem on the business, formulated and tested hypotheses, dug into the technical problems, made connections between them, and so on.

重要的不是扫描问题解决了,而是IT经理用了一个完全不同的方法来解决问题:他变得更加“用户智能”了,他站在用户的角度来了解问题对业务的影响,形成和测试假设直到找到技术问题,并建立他们之间的联系等等。


THE ENGINE OF A DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION

数字转型时代的引擎

As the example above proved, problem solving is very effective when it comes to teaching people in our companies to "get creative" (or, rather, smart creative). If your business is to survive and thrive in the digital world you must create an environment in which people are constantly using their creativity to solve problems.

正如上面的例子所证明的,当教会我们公司的人“创造性”(或者说,聪明的创造性)时,解决问题是非常有效的。如果你的事业要在数字世界中生存和发展,你必须创造一个环境,使人们不断利用他们的创造力来解决问题。


The main driver of a digital transformation is not an App, the use of the agile methodology or of big data, but the ability to listen to and solve each of the problems your users encounter.

This is a five-step process, which you can start to adopt today:

数字转换的主要驱动力不是应用程序,使用敏捷方法或大数据,而是倾听和解决用户遇到的每一个问题的能力。

这是一个五步的过程,你可以在今天开始采用:

1. Define user-focused improvement metrics

         定义以用户为核心的改善指标

2. Gather all customer feedback

         收集所有客户的反馈

3. Deal with problems one by one

          一个个地解决问题

4. Coach each individual in solving problems the right way

         教会个体正确解决问题的方式

5. See your people grow and your customers smile

        见证团队成长以及客户微笑

Do this every day and you will allow your company to confidently step into the digital world.

每天都坚持这么做,你将带领公司一步步自信地迈入数字世界。

英语原文出自Régis Médina, Lean IT Coach, Operae Partners


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